Although the European Union can be seen as a forerunner in the regulation of platforms and technology companies, it’s decision-making regarding issues related to media and communication is peculiarly complex. In issues such as data protection and the competition policy, the EU has been able to pass directives that have far-reaching consequences even for companies outside Europe. In more traditional media and cultural policy, however, the EU does not have much direct competence to intervene in issues related to media pluralism, apart from declarations and pronouncements. Partly because of this, the EU has attempted to promote media pluralism by means of ‘soft law’ approaches, such as measurement and monitoring. For example, the Media Pluralism Monitor tool has been developed to identify risks to media pluralism in EU member states. Although this remains one of the most sophisticated tools to assess different aspect of media pluralism, it has also inevitably highlighted the difficulties of defining and operationalizing the complex and contested concept of ‘media pluralism’ – and the different national policy traditions and political connotations associated with the concept.
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